SCADA for Generating Plant

SCADA for Generating Plant

A. Power Station Micro-computer Monitoring System

a. Introduction

Micro-computer Monitoring System adopts fully open and layered design to fulfill data concentrated sampling and disposal, unit sequence control, Micro-computer automatic quasi-synchronism, unit operation parameter automatic control and adjusting function and other functions. The system adopts the recently advanced technology and components, such as Windows NT&XP technology, DSP data processor technology, CAN-bus industrial local bus technology, Ethernet technology and INTERNET technology, etc.

 

Micro-computer Monitoring System has simple operation, flexible configuration and applies to monitoring of new hydropower station (pump station), technical transformation and distribution automation system for cascade hydropower station and also for thermo-power station Micro-computer monitoring system.

b. Key Features

Complete system monitoring and automatic control function

The design principle of no-people on duty and less people watch, station real-time running parameter monitoring, automatic real-time and history running report, curve and bar graph, etc. AGC, AVC, AFC, PQF, EDC and other advanced functions. All parameter setting, control and equipment operation performed in local, central control room, remote dispatching and other places.

 

Fully open and configuration monitoring system

Custom configuration and display; database link for different requirements without software adjusting.

Reliable and complete communication Configuration Mode

Single network

Modularization and structurization of software and hardware system

High redundance, good extension, big memory, facilitation.

Friendly human-machine interface

Humanization design, video sequence control process diagram; dynamic real-time interface of unit running, oil, water and gas equipment; rich video, multi-window graphical information and multi-media interface.

 

c. Composition

monitoring system mainly includes the following products:

Layer

Unit Name

Main Control Layer

monitoring software, server, work station
ON-CALL voice alarm system, UPS or inversion power supply, printer, projector, return screen, etc.

Communication Layer

communication managmene device, network equipment and annex, etc.

Local LCU Layer

communicaiton management device or  multi-function signal device
generator monitoring device
Micro-computer temperature patrol monitor
Common device programmable control system
Gate programmable control system
Electrical parameter monitor
Micro-computer automatic quasi-synchronism device
Station service transformer monitoring device
Board band multi-media video monitoring device
Intelligent digital meter
Note:Other equipment also can provide communication interface, such as PowerMaster, kilowatt-hour measurement system, Micro-computer excitation system, Micro-computer governer system, hydrologic regime inspectin and alarm system, fire system.

d. Key Functions

Introduction

monitoring software is one software product self-exploited by Chongqing New Century Electrical Co., Ltd., which has its own intellectual asset in the form of copyright on this software. The software is powerful, efficient, reliable, stable and convenient.

The software applies the fully open structure recommended by international organizations, network software accord with TCP/IP agreement and real-time multi-task and multi-screen mode in station and LCU, Client/Server and single network, double network and multi-network structure, RS232, RS485, industrial local CAN bus, ethernet network, etc., IEC60870-5-101, 102, 103, 104, CDT and MODBUS.

 

The monitoring system software for auto-electrical hydropower station and firepower station is applied widely in electrical monitoring system software for hydropower station and firepower station whose unit capacity is 100MW or less than 100MW. Owing to its powerful communication interface function, fast data disposal capability, monitoring software is also applied in step dispatching system of hydropower station.

 

Run deck

Operating system: MicroSoft Windows /Unix

Requirements for running condition

Primary Frequency: 2.0G; Internal memory: 256M; Display memory: 32M; Hard disk memory: ≥60G

 

Software Main Functions

Main functions are include as follows:

Main Functions

Data acquisition and disposal

Table and print

Safety Monitoring Intelligent Voice Alarm, auto phone alarm and inquiry
The sequence control for units’ open and closing Accident review
Running adjusting Anti-fault operation
Screen display Operation scheme
Simulate display Operation direction and training emulation
Browse and release WEB information Screen monitoring
Inner-Station and telecontrol communication Clock synchronization
Data base disposal
□ Data acquisition and disposal
Auto-periodically or stochastically acquisition of various real-time operation parameter and status about electric quantity, switching value, non-electric quantity and pulsed quantity; record, saving, examination, analysis, processing and calculation of the acquired data; data base comfile, including real-time data base and history log data base.
Main acquisition and disposal data:

Type

Content

Switching value sampling and disposal Interruptiong input and periodical examination of local facilities’status, location, failure and accident signals; event sequence record and alarm
Analog quantity sampling and disposal Periodically scan and examination of electric, such as about voltage, current, power, etc. and the non-electric data such as temperature, pressure, etc. Frequent out of limit,step out of limit examine, failure review record, save and real-time and history data print
Pulsed quantity sampling and disposal Accumulation disposal of Kilowatt-hour pulse and time-sharing accumulation for local demand

 

□ Safety Monitoring

a. Event and Accident Record Display

Mainly event sequence record, failure alarm record, parameter over-limit, over-limit alarm and their record. Event and accident display record in 2 colors (red means: high class priority, such as trip or main equipment failure; yellow means: alarm, requiring operating staff solves failure.)

b. Main Equipment Operation Record

c. Operating staff operating order record

d. Operating system’s operation and self-check record

e. Trend analysis and alarm (analysis and estimation of real time value change trend)

Such as analysis and estimation of temperature trend: on the rising trend monitoring of unit bearing temperature; change rate monitoring of unit bearing’s temperature; thrust bearing temperature difference monitoring; unit bearing allowed temperature rising curve, allowed temperature changing rate with time, etc.

□ Unit Start/stop Sequence Control

monitoring software provides intuitionistic and convenient graphical sequence control flow and support the executive methods of odd step, interruption,sequence executive mode.

a. Unit start-up or shut monitoring

→ Monitoring methods:

Dynamic unit sequence control monitoring diagram: when the flow is complex, use operation frame diagram with large steps that means when task is normally executed, only large steps will be displayed; when problem appears, the detailed executing flow will be displayed with animation. The playback is provided for analysis after the operation; abnormal trap disposal and print function

→ Monitoring mode

Remote (dispatching)monitoring; central control house monitoring (work station, server, etc.); local device side monitoring

 

b. unit start/stop sequence control

→ Control mode:

dispatching control; central control house control (work station, server, etc.); local device side monitoring

→ Control right:

The control option depends on central control house and local. Central control chooses remote dispatching or central control house;Local control chooses central control house or local.

Control right priority: equipment side (manual or touch screen) →central control house (master operator working station, spare working station, server work station, engineer working station) →remote dispatching, and there is lockout among them viz. there is only one operation working.

Failure stop operation, mechanical and electrical protection and automatic act, stop operation and breaker trip order have the highest priority and won’t lockout because of the setting of control right.

 

□ Running Adjust

Running adjust mode

Implement mode

Automatic generate control (AGC) Single control and joint control
Automatic voltage control (AVC) Single control and joint control
Economical operation ( EDC) Joint control
Automatic frequency adjusting control (AFC) Joint control

 

a. Automatic generate control (AGC)

Economical dispatching within station is fulfilled according to the daily load-curve issued by dispatcher or station total active power order provided by the operation staff which is to aim at saving much water for more electricity and avoiding the restriction conditions, such as vibration and cavitation and to decide the optimum combination of unit quantity on current water head. Main transformer ground, station-service transformer connection, line power flow distributing, etc. will be considered adequately, and the optimum load dispatching among the units will be fulfilled in equal increase rate mode.

 

→ AGC control mode:

Serial No.

AGC control mode

1

on load control mode

2

on daily load curve

3

on frequence set or system frequence limit value set

Note: non-disturbance switch-over among modes above

→ Principle of the AGC load distribution

On condition of avoiding the restrict conditions such as unit vibration zone, the optimum load dispatching among the units will be fulfilled on reactive power equal distribution mode.

 

b. Automatic voltage control (AVC)

Station busbar voltage or reactive power is automatically controlled on set conditions and demands. The fully available reactive power will be provided for the system and the loss of power will be reduced.

→ AVC control mode:

Serial No.

AVC control mode

1

on rating reactive power

2

on rating voltage

3

on voltage gragh

 

→ AVC dispatching principle:

avoiding constraint condition, the reactive in station is dispatched on reactive and equipower factor.

 

c. Economical operation (EDC)

According to the total active power provided by AGC or the set total daily load graph, following the principle-consume the lest water for most electricity and considering all restrict conditions, the mathematical model will be founded, the optimum dispatching on optimal load dispatching, started unit, start-up and shut-down sequence and load among units will be established and the automatic load adjust and automatic start-up and shut-down control will be fulfilled. In practice, the optimum started unit of the total plant load on current water head will be determined according to unit water head, capacity and efficiency graph.

Serial No.

The restrict condition of economical operation EDC

1

unit characteristic, reservoir water level, plant active power spare capacity

2

unit continuous shut-down spare time, unit operation time

3

set unit start-up and shut-down sequence, unit efficiency limit

 

d. Automatic frequency modulation control (AFC)

According to balance amount between the measured system frequency and standard frequency, calculate the system power shortage value, with coordinating calculation, the active power dispatching after calculation is the same as in the above way, automatically send active coordination order or start-up and shut-down order which are executed automatically then.

 

□ Screen Display

monitoring software can provide abundant sign base in electric power system, and automatically add and edit graphic components. Clients may design the human-machine interface to his favorite. The software is easy to master and use. The graphic screen display applies internet style which is concise with visual and vivid display.

 

The software system supports multi-screen and multi-window display. And it can provide professional graph to display the running status of plant, such as generator P-Q, the water level of catcher, etc. The work station relating people and machine has the function of interplot and display multimedia graph. The display can adopt the way of graphic, digital, analog designation, table, curve or adopt tridimensional and real-time display. The display can be picked up in the way of automatic and evocation. monitoring software can provide vivid display, rational composition of a picture, high refresh rate and convenient handle and it supports display copy, display interlinkage and display playback.

 

□ Analog Designation

monitoring software provides flexible display for ‘accident indication’ display and query function, diverse types of indication (accident or failure) can be displayed with diverse colors so that the display is very striking; provides the method for inquire the indication by object and type; provide diverse confirmation methods as by object, 1 by 1 and full screen; provide suggestive alarm function to indication, which distinguishes the exist of indication alarm by the colors of the object icon.

 

□ WEB Information’s Browsing and Releasing

monitoring software supports remote real-time display browsing, real-time data query, remote report display, history data graphic chart query, history event query, etc. The Intranet accessing can be implemented through wide area network (WAN) made up by routers ,and Internet accessing can be implemented through ph1 line dial-up, ISDN or DDN to utilize Internet to browse the information of plant production. To ensure the safety of accessing, the firewall and VPN technology are applied for preventing tightly the exterior interference to supervisory control system.

 

□ Interior Station and Telecontrol Communication

Apply the standard interface, implement the station layer and telecontrol data communication, send set plant running information, receive and execute the plant order such as AGC, AVC, EDC, AFC, etc., and provide redundantly the communication interface to exterior system.

a. Communication interface

Support the communication interfaces such as RS232, RS485, industrial local CAN bus and ethernet network.

b. Communication regulation

Support diverse communication regulations such as CDT, IEC60870-5-101, 102, 103, 104, 1801, DNP3.0, DL476-92, TCP/IP, etc.

c. Communication with exterior facilities

Such as analog screen, anti-fault system, protection equipment, MIS system, situation of river observing and predicting system, industrial TV system, fire fighting system, direct current system, measuring system, exciting speed adjusting system, etc.

 

□ Data Base Management

monitoring software whose relation type history data base applies the commercial data base of Microsoft SQL Server and supports history data curve display, history event record query, peak-to-valley ratio power accumulation, the times and time of out of limit and frequent out of limit, statistical query on switch action times, accumulation running time, etc.; support post disturbance review display; support history data backup; support redundant RAID and 2 redundant history log save station to ensure the history data’s reliably save. The running history data and correlative statistical data can be provide to running, management and maintenance staff for failure analysis and disposal.

 

□ Table and Print

Provide diverse data Report and record to customer’s demand, automatically make and print diverse data report and operation log on automatic, set time or order.

 

Prime report as follws:

SNo.

Report Name

SNo.

Report Name

1

time, day, month, quarter, year real time value

7

Event sequence record schedule

2

time, day, month, quarter, year value on schedule

8

Event and failure record schedule

3

time, day, month, quarter, year load log

9

Computer protection setting, fixed-value shedule

4

day, month, quarter, year power by stages and at time-sharing

10

Main facility parameter

5

report to dispatcher

11

Self-diagnose report

6

duty exchange record

12

Other reports

monitoring software organizes and display diverse report in Excel standard electronic spreadsheet way, supports to run the table for log, week, month and year statistics, odd month report and specific statistical report. Report displays in text, bar graph and piegraph. The picture and its accompanying essay are both excellent; through choose year, month or day, customers can query all history report and implement operation scheme print in convenient tree list.

 

□ Intelligent Voice Alarm, Auto Ph1 Alarm and Inquiry ( On-call Technology)

monitoring software has the function of intellectualized alarm to support Voice Alarm on prior ph1, pager and mobile ph1 and failure disposal direction; supports diverse query methods towards objects so that it can query on objects and events type; provide the query for system non-reset and uninsured event; display the attribute of any alarm event; provide the priority-controlled operation on object open and close, alarm shield, object repair and release repair.

 

□ Accident review

Review the fore and afters time of the failure and display the whole process to analyze and dispose the failure. Between the former 20 seconds and the 60 seconds after failure will be display; alternation is 0.5 second.

 

□ Anti-fault operation

Has the function of electrical anti-fault operation, breaker failure lockout operation, set disconnecting switch operation and lockout breaker operation.

 

□ Operation Process Rright

Has the function of auto-fill, record, query and print, rightly direct operation process on operation scheme and automatically execute the abnormity alarm.

 

□ Operation Direction and Training Emulation

Basing the running status of plant, provide query on correlative problem and direction, and provide training emulation for operation staff.

 

□ Screen Monitoring

Provide multi-task, multi screen real-time display, implement display non-disturbance switch and remote display monitoring with vivid image, and implement zoom function.

 

□ Clock Synchronism

Support synchronized satellite timing and implement system accurate timing function.

 

Monitoring System Structure

Monitoring software Micro-computer monitoring system adopts complete layered structure, conforming to the National relative regulation and requirement. The system is divided into Main Control Layer, Communication Layer and Local LCU Layer. Each local control unit (LCU) can separate from Main Control Layer to run independently.

 

Main Control Layer

Major functions of Main Control Layer is running management, operation control, data display, statistics, save, print and others, which are mainly performed by Operator Work Station, server and other micro-computer components. The quantity of work station is decided by power station requirement, Pentium4-2.0G or more advanced exported industrial controller or work station can be choosen. Printer server can connect external printers, such laser, ink jet printer and stylus printer. Communication work station can connect return cubicle, dispatching and hydrological regime inspecting and alarm system.

 

Main Control Layer Major Equipment (difference on different station scale and design requirement)

Device Name

Device Name

Device Name

data server

operator work station

engineer station

training emulation station

communication station

print server

voice alarm system

monitoring software system

director terminal

large screen projector

other devices

 

Communication Layer

Major functions of Communication Layer is to receive each local equipment running status and data from local control layer LCU, process the data and transmit the processed data to Main Control Layer; receive and perform the command from Main Control Layer to fulfill automatic control on equipment owned, input human command to automaticly control equipment running on command or saved running plan.

 

Communication Layer Major Equipment (difference on different station scale and design requirement)

DeviceName

Device Name

Device Name

remote monitoring terminal

wide area communication computer

exchanger

optical transceiver

optical (or twisted pair line) and network annex

other devices

 

Local LCU Layer

Major functions of Local LCU Layer is to fulfill data acquisition and preprocessing on monitored object, to transmit information into network and obey command and management of work station. LCU also has control, adjusting operation and monitoring functions.

Local LCU Layer can run independently and has local monitoring function, form part function double redundancy on power station actural requirement; integrated structure of multi-processor redundancy and simplized routine automatic control circuit, etc.

 

Local LCU Layer is mainly composed of unit LCU, switchyard and common device LCU, gate control LCU and others:

Local LCU Layer

Device Composition

Unit LCU

unit local control communication management controller or communication management device
multi-function signal device
micro-computer temperature patrol monitor
micro-computer quasi-synchronism device
electrical parameter monitor
Intelligent digital meter, etc
cubicle body

Switchyard and Common device LCU

Switchyard

switchyard and common device local control device or communication management device
multi-function signal device
micro-computer automatic quasi-synchronism device
electrical parameter monitor
intelligent digital meter

Common Device

cubicle body

Gate Control LCU

common device programmable control system or oil, water and gas control box
gate control local control device or communication management device
gate programmable control system
intelligent digital meter and others
cubicle body

 

Functions of Unit LCU

Unit LCU has remote/local and automatic/manual running mode. When remote control is performing, PLC receives control command from operator; when local control is performing, PLC receives human-machine interface or control cubicle operation command. The core part of unit LCU is unit communication management device. Unit communication management device has complete intelligent communication interface and applies to different communication modes, no-gap connection of communication protocols, automatic real-time backup data, and it can communicate with Main Control Layer device while micro-computer temperature patrol monitor, micro-computer rotation speed monitor, electrical parameter and automatic quasi-synchronism device, PLC, micro-computer governor, micro-computer excitation cubicle and intelligent meter communicate with communication management device through RS485, RS232 or CAN bus.

 

□ Functions of Unit LCU

Functions

Implement Process

Data Acquisition

unit run parameter acquisition such as U, I, P, Q, f

Status Acquisition

unit all parts run status acquisition, such as run status, accident and failure information of excitation, governor, water turbine, unit auxiliary, etc.

Data Processing

processing of runstatus, accident information and run parameter, real-time and history data base for display, save, print and use for main controller.

Control and Adjusting

control and adjusting command, unit running status and parameter control, such as unit starting and stoping, automatic quasi-synchronism, trip and closing, governing excitation, active power and reactive power automatic adjusting, etc.

Display Function

display of unit run status, run parameters, run parameter rated values, operation menus, operation prompts, run curves, accident parameters, etc., keyboard and automatic switchover display

Communication

inner information transmission beteen LCU layer inner layer and main control layer

□ Main Monitoring Device of Unit LCU

According to the actual condition of power station, main monitoring device of unit LCU is generator, excitation transformer, governor, auxiliary device (unit oil, water and gas), etc., the detailed technical instructions is in relative information or contact us directly.

 

Functions of Switchyard and Common Device

The core part of switchyard and common device LCU is common device programmable control system and switchyard and common device communication management device (recommended), in it, switchyard and common device communication management device (recommended) has complete intelligent communication interfacem which applies to different communication mode, no-gap connection of different communication protocol, automatic real-time backup data; it can communicate with Ethernet and Main Control Layer device.

□ Functions of Switchyard and Common Device LCU

Functions

Implement Process

Data Acqusition

acquisition of switchyard device running status acquisition, running parameter (voltage, current, active and reactive power), micro-computer DC power data, common device running status, running parameter (oil, water, gas pressure, temperature, oil level, water leve, etc), accident and failure information, whole station kilowatt-hour information, etc.

Data Processing

filtering of acquired data, data classification and calculation, history and real-time data base for local display, save and use for Main Control Layer

Control

open and close control of switchyard device and breaker: on Main Control Layer communication or keyboard command. Unit automaticly check frequency, voltage and phase difference, satisfy synchronous close to send close command to breakers o close, which has synchronism-check close function. Start, stop and spare device auto-engaging control on set run parameter.

Display

images display on keyboard command or automatically, including:

switchyard main wiring diagram and devices running status and parameter

device sampling and self-check information

device history data, running report and curve

running status, parameter, accident and failure information of common devices

running statistics report and curve of common devices

running status and parameter of small-sized gate devices

Communication

interaction among switch station, common device LCU layer inner and main control layer

□ Switch station main monitoring device

According to actual condition of power station, the switch station main monitoring device mainly includes: transformer, bus, line, station service transformer, etc. The detail refers to relative technical instructions or you contacts company.

□ Common device main monitoring device:

Common device main monitoring device of hydropower station mainly include: high, medium or low gas compressor, technical water suppling system, repair discharge pump, leakage discharge pump, etc.

Common Device

According to the size of hydropower station, adopts common device programmable control system or oil, water, gas control box methods to implement common device monitoring. The core of common device programmable control system is composed of one PLC and one interface device; the core of oil, water and gas control box is composed of one small-sizded PLC and interface device.

□ Technical Suppling Control Device

a. Classification: pump water suppling, natural flow water suppling system, etc.

b. Control Principle:

Open on main valve opening process, when main valve is open, check shaft cooling water, main shaft sealing water and other current indicating annunciator; If make contact is not open, immediately engage technical water suppling pump for pump water suppling system; open electromagnetic valve for natural flow water suppling system; after engaging technical water suppling, make contact closes.

 

In technical water suppling system, usually one unit is for one work pump and they share spare pump. When one pump is wrong or water outlet water filter is blocked, use spare pump. In some hydropower station, two sets of water suppling system switchovers. When spare pump is wrong or water outlet water filter is blocked, switchover to natural flow water suppling system.

 

c. Main signal check, components composition and configuration standard of technical water suppling control system

Name

Main Content

Sigal Detection

PLC power status, pump running status, water outlet pressure signal, unit running status, cooling water current indication (or pressure and flow rate) signal, manual or automatic switchover signal, wate suppling system switchover status, etc.

Components Composition

programmable controller, contactor or soft starter, relay, transducer, conventional control switch, button, indicating lamp, etc.

Configuration Standard

programmable controller— I/O point quantity on unit capacity and quantity, 48 points or 32 points (2 units, unit capacity≤ 5000KW);≥80 points (if more units and larger capacity)
contactor— generator power≤18KW or larger generator adopting Y/△ decompress starting (SIMENSE, Schneider or Tianshui 213)

soft stater— generator whose direct-start current is large (SIMENSE, Schneider, etc)

relay— isolate or enlarge programmable controller output capacity (OMRON)
transducer—when there is swtichover in 2 sets of wate suppling system, require unit total output power for switchover reference (made in China)

 

□ Discharge system control device

a. Classification: hydropower station discharge control box can be sorted as check discharge control box, station internal leakage discharge control box, passage discharge system, dam leakage discharge control box, dam base discharge control box, etc.

b. Control Principle

When water rises to set value 1, work pump start, open relative electromagnetic valve before start pump, start pump.

When water rises to set value 2, work pump start, open relative electromagnetic valve before start pump, start pump.

When water rises to set value 3, send alarm signal.

When water falls down to set value 2, spare pump stops; after pump stoping, close electromagnetic valve in delay.

When water falls down to set value 1, main valve stop, after pump stopping, close electromagnetic valve in delay; after pump running, if outlet tube has no water, current indicator don’t work, close pump in delay and alarm; generator starting circuit of discharge control system can adopt soft starting circuit.

c. Main signal check, components composition and configuration standard of technical discharge control system

Name

Main Content

Signal

Check

PLC power status, pump running status, outlet tube current indicating (or pressure, flow rate) signal, liquid level signal annunciator, electric contact manometer, manual or automatic switchover signal, etc.

Components

Composition

programmable controller, contactor or soft startor, relay, electric contact manometer, conventional control switch, button and indicating lamp, etc.

Configuration

Standard

programmable controller—usually I/O 32 points (Mitsubishi or Taida)
contactor—-for generator power≤18KW or large generator adopting Y/△ decompress start (SIMENSE or Schneider)
soft stater—for generator whose direct starting current is large (SIMENSE, Schneider)
relay—for isolating or enlarging programmable controller output capacity (OMRON or relay made in China)

 

□ Gas Engine Control Device

a. Classification: high, medium or low voltage air compressor system

b. Control principle:

When the pressure of main air tank falls down to the gas engine starting pressure, electric contact manometer 1DJ low-limit contact contacting, work air compressor cooling system starting, electricmagnetic valve of work gas compressor open, work air compressor start.

 

When the pressure of main gas tank falls down to starting pressure of spare air compressor, electricmagnetic manometer 2DJ low limit contact close, spare air compressor cooling system start, electricmagnetic valve of spare air compressor open, spare air compressor start.

 

When the pressure of main gas tank rises to stopping pressure of spare air compressor, electricmagnetic manometer 2DJ high limit contact close and spare air compressor cooling system stops.

 

When main air tank pressure rises to stopping pressure of work air compressor, electricmagnetic manometer 1DJ high limit contact close, main air compressor stops. When main air tank pressure falls down to alarm pressure, electricmagnetic manometer 3DJ low limit contact close, send pressure overlow signal.

 

When main air tank pressure rises to high limit alarm pressure, electricmagnetic 4DJ high limit contact close, also means alarm and stop control system of air compressor system.

 

According to air compressor generator capacity, generator can be directly started, also started by soft startor.

 

c. Main signal check, components composition and configuration standard of air compressor control system

Name

Main Content

Signal Check

PLC power status, air compressor running status, air compressor electric contact pressure signal, air pressure signal, temperature signal, manual or automatic switchover signal, etc.

Components Composition

programmable controller, electric contact manometer or pressure annunciator, pressure transducer, temperature transducer, contactor or soft starter, relay, conventional control switch, button and indicating lamp, etc.

Configuration Standard

programmable controller—usually I/O 32-64 points, AI4-8 points (Mitsubishi or Taida)
contactor—-for generator power≤18KW or larger generator adopting Y/△ decompress starting (SIMENSE, Schneider or Tianshui 213)
soft starter—for generator whose direct starting current is large (SIMENSE, Schneider or Taida)
relay—for isolating or enlarging programmable controller output capacity (OMRON or relay made in China)
□ Oil Pressure System Control Device

a. Classification: turbine oil system and insulating oil system

The function of oil pressure supply system of hydropower station is to create and save high-pressure oil. Oil pressure equipment adopting pressure transducer, pressure difference transducer and bead float annunciator is as the following picture:

b. Control Principle

When the pressure of oil tank falls down to the work oil pump starting pressure, electric contact manometer 1DJ low-limit contact close, work oil pump supplies pressure oil to oil tank.

When the pressure of pressure oil tank is higher than stopping pressure of work oil pump, electric contact manometer 1DJ high limit contact close, work oil pump stop.

When oil pressure of oil tank falls down to starting pressure of spare oil pump, electric contact manometer 2DJ low limit contact close, spare oil pump supplies oil to pressure oil tank.

When the pressure of pressure oil tank is more than stopping pressure of oil pump, electric contact manometer 2DJ high limit contact close, spare oil pump stop.

When oil pressure of oil tank falls down to alarm pressure, electric contact manometer 3DJ low limit contact close, send alarm signal.

When oil pressure falls down to work oil pressure low limit and oil level is above oil level high limit, electricmagnetic gulp valve start, aerate gas to pressure oil tank.                                                          

 

c. Main signal check, components composition and configuration standard of oil pressure control system

Name

Main Content

Signal

Check

PLC power status, oil pump running status, oil pressure electric contact signal, electricmagnetic gulp valve status, manual or automatic switchover signal, etc.

Components

Composition

programmable controller, electric contact manometer, contactor or soft startor, relay, conventional control switch, button or indicating lamp, etc.

Configuration

Standard

Programmable controllor—usually I/O 48 points (Mitsubishi or Taida, etc.)
contactor— for generator power≤18KW or larger generator adopting Y/△ decompress starting (SIMENSE, Schneider or Tianshui 213)
soft stater—for generator whose direct starting current is large (SIMENSE, Schneider or Taida)
relay—for isolating or enlarging programmable controller output capacity (OMRON or relay made in China)

 

□ Small-sized gate control device

a. Classification: conventional gate, mainly include fast gate, flood gate, flush gate and tail gate, etc. (mainly introduce dam gate in this section)

b. Control Principle

Mainly collect dam water level signal, gate opening position signal and limit signal, and integrate with water dispatching command to perform opening sequence and condition of the gates, control method is start-stop machine positive and negative rotation, also collect pressure difference signal of trash rack. The above data collected are sent to center control room monitoring system. The usual Communication mode is on distance. Long distance usually adopts cable communication or ph1 communication while short distance usually connects background by Ethernet.

c. Main signal check, components composition and configuration standard of small-sized gate control system

Name

Main Content

Signal

Check

PLC power status, start-stop unit running status, water level signal, gate position signal, trash rack pressure difference signal, manual or automatic switchover signal, etc.

Components

Composition

programmable controller, contactor or soft startor, relay, nilometer, opening monitor, conventional control switch, button and indicating lamp and so no.

Configuration

Standard

programmable controllor— I/O points quantity on dam requirement and gate control quantity, usually 32 points or 80 points, AI4-16 points (Mitsubishi or Taida)
contactor— for generator power≤18KW or larger generator adopting Y/△ decompress starting (SIMENSE, Schneider or Tianshui 213)
soft stater—for generator whose direct starting current is large (SIMENSE, Schneider or Taida)
relay—for isolating or enlarging programmable controller output capacity (OMRON or relay made in China)
nilometer—monitor water level signal, usually can output water level rising and overhigh signal, associated device is sensor and lightning module (Mike, etc.)
Opening inspector—inspect gate opening position signal, usually is analog input, associated device is sensor or lightning module (same manufacturer for matching).

Note:

According to size and different requirement of hydropower station, gate control system can be used as part of dam programmable control system to compose independent monitoring system. If there is need, please refer to relative information from us or contact us.

Main functions of dam programmable control system:

System Structure and Composition

central concentrative monitoring layer

composed of work station, server, printer, etc.

communication layer

composed of local communication network

local control unit layer

composed of gate control drive box

Key Functions of System

independent concentrative monitoring

remote control and adjusting

dam safety check

gate group control

reservoir area flow regime control

video watch

lightning

other major device monitoring, etc.

 

d. Key Performance Parameters

Real-time Parameter

□ Status and alarm point sampling cycle: ≤100mS

□ Event sequence record point resolution: ≤2ms

□ Electrical and non-electrical analog value data sampling cycle: ≤1s

□ Pulse value data sampling cycle: ≤1s

□ Response time from LCU receiving control command to performing command: ≤1s

□ Response time of LCU changing data to station layer database: ≤1s

□ Time synchronism accuracy: ≤1ms

□ Time for calling new image: ≤1s

□ Refresh time of image dynamic data:≤1s

□ The time from the sending of operator order to check answer: ≤1s

□ Alarm or information displaying time: ≤1s

□ Double unit automatic switchover time: non-disturbance, no interruption for real-time task

□ Joint control active power performing cycle: 2S-3min (adjustable)

□ Joint control reactive power performing cycle: 2S-3min (adjustable)

□ Economical dispatching control disposal cycle: 2min-15min

□ Automatic control command performing response time: ≤2.0s

Reliability and availability

□ Availability:≥99.98%

□ Average no-failure running time MTBF:>20000h

□ Each object device MTBF:≥30000h

□ Power, module and channel MTBF: ≥50000h

□ Average maintenance time (MTTR):≤0.5 h

System Redundancy and Load Factor:

□ CPU load factor:

normal ( during any 30 mins): ≤30%

electric system failure (during 10s): ≤50%

□ memory availability: ≤40%

□ hard disk availability: ≤50%

Maintenance, Safety and Expandability

□ Consider installation place for 2nd project installation

□ Provide functions for user’s amending and software extension

□ System won’t set independent ground network, connect directly with main ground network of station, each TV and TA ground terminals are lead to system through cable. Each point in system can be chosen to ground.

B. Power station Micro-computer Protection System

a. Introduction

Micro-computer protection system adopts fully-open, module structure design and can implement collect and manage protection data of power station. The system has advanced technology, such as 32 bit single-chip microcomputer with high performance, 32 bit DSP data collection processor, bus within chip, etc.; each protection device: powerful function, complete types, flexible configuration (to different requirement), complete digital setting, high reliability, advanced technology, simple operation, convenient usage; extensively application on relay protection requirement for units of different capacity and types.

b. Key Features

Good Compatibility

Adopt communication protocol which conforms to international electrical standard and communicate with Micro-computer monitoring system or other monitoring system supplied by other manufactuers.

Fully Open and Layer Structure

Different layer structure choice; protection system composed of main control layer, communication layer and local LCU (hardware resources share among main control layer, communication layer device, protection system and monitoring system)

Powerful Data Disposal

Protection system data acquisition and disposal in protection system management unit and local protection unit; real-time multi-task and embedded operation system

Powerful Functions

Flexible Multi-object protection in power station; exellent self-diagnos, failure oscilloscope, communication disposal, display operation function, etc for different requirements

Powerful Communication

Support RS232, RS485, CAN and Ethernet communication interface and different communication protocols, such as IEC60870-5-103, CDT, MODBUS and other standard protocols, CAN custom protocol; simple and flexible network configuration; communication protocols interface for different system

Interface Humanization

Multi-task and multi-window human-machine interface

c. Composition

Power station protection system include:

Protection System Main Control Layer Products:

Detail in ‘Monitoring System Products Composition-Main Control Layer Products’.

Protection System Communication Layer Products:

Detail in ‘Monitoring System Products Composition-Communication Layer Products’.

Note: Main Control Layer device, Communication Layer device, protection system and monitoring system share the hardware resources.

Protection System Local LCU Layer Products:

Layer

Device Name

Note

Local Management

Layer

Protection management work station or communication management device: UPS (inversion power), printer, system software, etc.

method 1: independent protection management system

method 2: share 1 set system with monitoring part

Switchyard

Local

LCU Layer

Power Transformer

dual coil transformer (voltage≤35KV)

three (dual) coil transformer (voltage≤110KV)

Line

voltage class≤110KV

voltage class≤35KV

terminal line (switching station, etc)

Busbar

single/dual busbar (voltage class≤110KV), space number<14

Station Service Transformer

station service transformer protection

Distribution Transformer

distribution transformer protection

Unit Local

LCU Layer

Generator

unit (capacity≥25MW) protection

unit (capacity≤25MW) protection

Excitation Transformer

excitation transformer protection

Note: Information of Micro-computer protection device can be downloaded from company website: www.cqnec.com.cn

d. Key Functions

Introduction

Protection system is composed of main control layer, communication layer and local LCU layer, and main control layer device, communication layer device, protection system and monitoring system share hardware resources. Protection system has the protection function of generator, transformer, water turbine, power transmission line, station service transformer and others satisfying local requirements, the functions of remote engaging and stopping protection and remote resetting protection action signal, and can perform failure oscilloscope to implement remote inqury, amending, send protection rating to sub-part and other functions; independent control: when abnormality in Micro-computer and remote monitoring happen, the system can perform its independent manual control function to make necessary operation and set with switches; protection has complete data interface and communication protocol to guarantee data to be received by master.

Key Functions

□ Data Acquisition and Processing

Data acquisition and input processing of all analog value, switch value, non-electrical protection analog value, over limit of rating and status changing exam of rating, event alarm login disposal and others.

□ Accident and Failure Record

Failure oscilloscope and event record functions. Running status, alarm and protection event of Micro-computer are sent to Main Control Layer through unit or local LCU.

□ Information Save and Real-time Print

Information save and real-time print of event action information, collected data in real-time, etc.

□ Online Self-diagnos and Check

Self-diagnos and chek, failure diagnos and location and simple retire hint functions; failure module and kind check; signal notice

□ Human-machine Communication

Local or remote rating setting: keyboard, touch screen, etc. operation; protection system rating setting and debug; engaging-switchover protection and outlet facilities

□ Communication

Suppor RS232, RS485, CAN and Ethernet communication interface and different communication protocol, such as IEC60870-5-103, CDT, MODBUS standard protocol, CAN custom protocol; simple and convenient configuration is; different system communication interface

□ Clock Synchronism Control

Two GPS clock syncnronism modes; mode 1: radio synchronism command from station layer; mode 2: directsynchronism signal receival

 

Protection System Structure

□ Protection System Management Layer

Method 1: The communication interface of protection device directly connects monitoring system without considering individual protection system management device.

Method 2: Protection device directly connects protection management system and connects background management system by communication interface.

□ Switchyard Local LCU Layer

Switchyard Local LCU Layer protection objects include electrical transformer, line, bus, station service distribution transformer, etc. See electrical detail in our company’s technical instructions (include: electrical transformer, line, bus, station service distribution transformer, motro, capacitor, distribution transformer, etc.) or contact us. The technical instructions mainly includes unit protection device.

□ Unit Local LCU Layer

Unit local LCU layer protection device mainly includes: unit main protection, backup protection, excitation transformer protection, etc.

 

 C. Power Station Micro-computer Automation System Common Device

a. Communication Management Device

Key Features:                                             

□ Embedded CPU with high performance; Fast operation, communication and data processing capability

□ Two 10/100M network interface, two CAN, two RS232 and two RS485.

□ Kinds of communication protocols including CDT, 101, 102, MODBUS, etc

□Support on-line configuration, revising system configuration and taking into effect in time

□ Support double-Ethernet structure

Key Functions:

□ Methods to fulfill collection, processing and transmission of communication information in substation

□ Data retransmission

□ Double-unit hot reserve and automatic switchover

□ Support on-line debug

□ Support Modbus/RTU and Modbus/TCP device

□ GPS timing clock for the whole station

 

b. Multi-Function Signal Device

Key Features

Multi-function signal device applies to cubicle synchronously installation and adopts module design (has 10 slots) where power module is fixed in 1st slot while other 9 slots are flexibly configured to several different/same modules.

Key Functions  

□ Communication conversion

□ Excitation current and voltage conversion

□ Switch value acquisition

□ Temperature transformation

□ Analog value acquisition

□ DC voltage transformation

 

d. Microcomputer Micro-computer Temperature Patrol Monitor

Key Features:

The temperature inspector has a core of CPU and collects the hot resistance signal by constant-current source with high accuracy, transforms the signal to digital value into CPU and then display the measured temperature value after compensation. It can be configured with different types of hot resistance and the parameters can be amended at any time. By setting the different alarm value to provide the audible and visual alarm and outputs the contact signal. The device provides CAN and RS485 communication protocol and adopts the protocol compiled 1self and MODBUS standard protocol and has the features of low power consumption, multi-function, high interference immunity and low price to high quality.

Key Functions:

□ Measurement function:

Measure the temperature on every measuring point

□ Measurement Range: on hot resistance or hot couple

Measurement Accurancy: 0.5%FS±1 word

□ Various kinds of signal input

Various types of hot resistance, such as Cu50, Cu53, PT100, etc.

Various types of hot couple, such as B,S,K,E,J,T,WR, etc.

voltage:0-5,1-5, etc.

current:0-20mA,4-20mA, etc.

□ Display function:

Display range: -999-1999 word

□ Communication function:

CAN Communication interface: RS485/232, CAN

Communication protocol: MODBUS standard protocol and protocol compiled 1self

 

e. Power Monitoring Device

Key Features:

□ Wide Application Range, reliable performance

□ Programmable key to set work parameter(password guard)

□ Accurate measurement, fast processing

□ Types of communication interface, including CAN, RS-232/RS-485 and Ethernet

□ Types of communication protocol, including self-compiled, TCP/IP, MODBUS, IEC68070-5-103 and other standard

□ Display of all electricity quantity meter, switch position status and other parameters

Key Function:

□ Measurement

Bus three phase voltage Ua, Ub, Uc

Three phase measurement current Ia, Ib, Ic

Three protection current Ia, Ib, Ic

Zero sequence voltage UO; zero sequence current IO; Synchronous voltage UX

Frequency: system frequency fm, line frequency fx

Power, power factor and kilowatt-hour: P, Q, cosf, kwh, varh

□ Status Monitor

Breaker QF status and each isolator QS status

SF6 pressure status, spring energy accumulation status

Protection status input

External opening and closing input, setting value group choosing

GPS pulse input

Trip and closing circuit status and control power supply status

□ Control

Opening control

fast and accurate automatic quasi-synchronous closing

Low frequency reducing load

Low voltage step-out

Bus voltage and TV monitoring

Operation latch

Kilowatt-hour accumulation and breaker action statistic

 

f. Computer automatic quasi-synchronism device

Key Features:

□ Double CPU structure, high reliability

□ Types of communication interface, including CAN, RS-232/RS-485 and Ethernet

□ Types of communication protocol, including self-compiled, TCP/IP, MODBUS, IEC68070-5-103 and other standard

□ Synchronous adjusting

□ Fast litte phase difference (≤2°) closing(in first slip synchronism satisfying condition)

□ Friendly Interface

□ Applies to different occasion, divide as single object and multi-object (at most 14) on object quantity; divide as generator, transformer and line type on synchronism object type

□ Parameter record and oscilloscope function

Key Functions:

□ Synchronism object choose

□ Synchronism parameter adjusting

□ Synchronism closing

□ Synchronism closing parameter record

□ Oscilloscope

□ Display

□ Other function ( include communication function, manual synchronism meter, pulse timing, phase sequence check, etc.)

 

g. Electrical Parameter Monitor

Key Features:

□ Device applies to diverse occasion and performance is stable and reliable.

□ Can set working parameter with passport protection by programming the button setting.

□ High accuracy in measurement and fast disposal

□ Device provides 2 RS-485 standard communication and 1 CAN interface. There are only 2 leading-out terminal (1 is fixed as RS-485 interface and another is 485/CAN interface)

□ To exterior apply standard Modbus-RTU, 103 agreement and applies to diverse baud rate communication

□ Apply 128×64 liquid crystal display and possess the full electric meters, switch position status and other parameter display.

Key Functions

□ Data acquisition, transmission and disposal function

The collection, transmission and disposal on voltage, current, frequency, active or reactive electric degree and every remote measurement

□ Measure function

Phase voltage: Va, Vb, Vc, V0

Range of voltage (phase voltage):  100/√3, 380√3   can be chosen

line voltage: Vab, Vbc, Vca, Vllavg

Current: Ia, Ib, Ic, I0;Range of current : 5A , 1A can be chosen

Active power: P; Reactive power: Q; Apparent power:S; Power factor: Cosφ; Frequency:f

Kilowatt-hour: Positive sequence active, negative active, induced reactive, capacitive reactive

Accuracy in measure: current, voltage: level 0.2

Active, reactive: level 0.5

Other electric quantity: level 1.0

Frequency: most error 0.05Hz

□ Remote communication and remote control function

10 switch input

4 control output

receive and executive remote order from superior prime station and send the correction

The sampling and transmission of every remote communication data real time status, and prior open transmission of switch deflection and transmission of event record

Receive and send the remote order, and reclosing protection action lockout

Reset order of receiving and execute

Receive and execute time comparing order

□ Statistic function

Voltage qualified rate statistics

Frequency qualified rate statistics

Voltage disbalance degree statistics

Load disbanlance degree statistics

Breaker open and closing times statistics

Harmonic distortion coefficient statistics

□ Program self-recovery and device self-diagnose

□ Channel monitoring

□ Primary to 13# harmonic analysis

□ Mutual sequence components analysis

□ Display and keyboard operation

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